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Under-carriage. Another name for the carriage (q.v.)

Urtcher plate. A loose iron washer at the shoulder of an axle tree (q.v.) arm.

Valencin. A South American two wheeled carriage, drawn by two mules abreast, on one of which a postilion rides. When new and in fine order, this vehicle is a calésa but worn for some time, it degenerates into a “valencin,” as private carriages, in the course of time, dwindle into hackney coaches in the United States.

Van. A high sided vehicle, usually headed or covered. It was used commercially for the delivery, and collection of goods and luggage. It was either two or four wheeled and draw by a single horse in shafts or by a pair in pole gear.

Viller. A rare West Country name for a felloe (q.v.)

Wagon (or Waggon). This was a four-wheeled, medium heavy vehicle used extensively on British farms and also, to a less extent, commercially for the carriage of goods. In farming terms the main regional types were either high sided Box-wagons (q.v.) of the Eastern, East Midleand and Yorkshire counties or low-sided Bow-wagons (q.v.), with side rails or raves (q.v.) bowed above the rear wheels for protection. The wagon was unpopular in Scotland or the interior of Wales. Most regions in England had their own traditional design.

Waggonage. Money paid for carriage in a waggon.

Wagonette. A four-wheeled passenger vehicle usually open and entered through a rear door with a step iron. The interior had logitudinal , inward facing seats usually accommodating three persons on each side. It was usually drawn by a single horse to shafts or a pair to pole gear. It was first constructed in England in the 1840's.

Warner wheel. An American invention using a hub cage (q.v.) to provide additional support to the wheel spokes. Variations of the Warner wheel were the "Sweet" and "Sarven" designed by inventors with these names.

Wanty (Wan'ti). A leather strap or wagon rope.

Wame-tow. A belly-band or girth.

Web(s). The space(s) left between the spoke mortices in a wheel.

Wells. Fitted trunks (q.v.) hung on each side of a carriage perch.

Wheel box. The axle bearing in the hub (q.v.).

Wheel horse. The clamp into which the wheel is clamped during construction.

Wheel pit. The pit over which the wheel horse is placed to accept the bottom part of the wheel during construction.

Wheeler’s side. A tool used for removing surplus wood quickly during the initial stages of wheel and body making.

Wheeler. The horse, or horses, nearest to the vehicle.

Wheelplate. The top bearing of the fifth wheel (q.v.)

Wheelwright. A woodworker engaged in the making of wheels and the heavier type of horse drawn vehicle

Whippletree. See Swingletree.

Whirligig. A term used to describe a two-wheeled vehicle drawn by one horse and accommodating two people only. Shortened to "gig" in many instances.


American Horse-drawn Vehicles -
Jack D. Rittenhouse
Australian Horse Drawn Vehicles -
Micheal Stringer
Carriage Terminology: An Historical Dictionary -
Don A. Berkebile
Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary 1909 -
The Coaching Life -
Harry Hanson
Coach Building 1897 -
John Philipson
A Dictionary of Horse-drawn Vehicles -
D. J. M. Smith
Discovering Carts and Wagons -
John Vince
Discovering Horse-drawn Commercial Vehicles -
D. J. Smith
Discovering Horse-drawn Vehicles -
D. J. Smith
Driving -
Clive Richardson
The Elegant Carriage -
Marylian Whitney
English Horse Drawn Vehicles -
David Parry
A Glossary of Wood -
Thomas Corkhill
Horse-drawn Carriages -
John Thompson
Horse-drawn Carriage Construction -
John Thompson
Horse-drawn Heavy goods Vehicles -
John Thompson
Horse-drawn Farm Implements Part I – Ploughs -
John Thompson
Horse-drawn Farm Implements Part IV- Harvesting -
John Thompson
Horse-drawn Farm Vehicles -
John Thompson
Horse-drawn Trade Vehicles -
John Thompson
Horse Drawn Transport of the British Army -
D. J. Smith
Horse-drawn Vehicles since 1760 -
Arthur Ingram
Making Model Horse-drawn Carriages -
John Thompson
Making Model Carriages 1934 -
Practical Carriage BuildingVol I & Vol II -
M. T. Richardson
Quicksilver: A Hundred Years of Coach -
Thomas Ashby
Saddlery & Harness Making -
Paul N. Hasluck
Secrets of Wheelwrighting - Tyres -
M. C. Hendrickson.
Wagons and Carts -
David Viner
Wagon, Chariot & Carriage -
Walkers Pronouncing Dictionary 1881 -
The Wheelwrights Shop -
George Sturt
The Wheelwrights Trade -
John Thompson
Wheelwrights Glossary of Workshop Terms & Definitions -
R. S. Beardow