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GLOSSARY OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLE AND WHEELWRIGHT TERMS (K - O)
Katydids. See Big Wheels
Keys. Timbers placed at right angles to the summers (q.v.) for fixing long boards.
King bolt. See King pin.
King pin. The pivot on which the fifth wheel (q.v.) turns.
Knifeboard. The seating arrangement on the top deck of a bus on which passengers sit back to back (dos-á-dos) facing outwards.
Knock. See Nock.
Ladder. A rack-like framework fitted to the front and rear of agricultural vehicles to increase their capacity particularly at harvest time.
Lade. The overhanging shelf from the top rave (q.v.) of the sideboards (q.v.) to increase the capacity of an agricultural vehicle and to protect its wheels
Land. See "Housing for nave bond".
Leaf springs. Springs made from laminated iron or steel plates. The springs may be elliptical or semi-elliptical in form.
Limber(s). See Shafts.
Linchpin or Lynch pin. A flat wedge-shaped pin fitted at the end of the axle shaft to secure the wheel to the axle.
Linchpin remover. An iron arm about 6" long with a wedge-shaped hook at one end and an eye hole into which a lever bar, about 20" long, is pushed through at the other end. One end of the lever bar has a chisel shape to it, slightly bent down 1" from the end. The other end is is turned at a right angle to form a hammer head. In use the hook of the tool is placed under the linchpin (q.v.) while the chisel end of the lever is placed on top of the wheel hub. Using the hub as a fulcrum, the hammer end of the lever bar is lifted up drawing up the pin.
Lingel. A shoe or harness-maker's thread rubbed with beeswax.
Lining. The interior covering of a coach or carriage body.
Lining out. Lines painted around the body, the edges of panels spokes, on shafts, and other parts to decorate a vehicle.
Lock. The term used to describe the turning capacity of the fore carriage on four wheeled horse-drawn vehicles.
Locking arch. The cavity at the fore part of a wagon to permit the front axle to turn under the vehicle.
Locking chain. A chain connecting the front axle to the wagon side to prevent the wheel fouling the wagon body when the axle turns.
Locking cleats. Iron plates fitted to the body side to prevent damage from the front wheels when the axle turns.
Logging wheels. See Big Wheels
Long boards. Boards which run parallel to a wagon’s sides.
Mail Axle. An improved and strengthened type of axle introduced for the Mail Coach providing lubrication and greater security for the wheels. It was stronger than other types of axle since it secured the wheel with three long bolts.
Michigan wheels. See Big Wheels
Naff. See Nave
Nave (Also Boss (N.Eng; Hub, Naff (Yorks). See Hub.
Nip. The contraction allowance between the dimension of the tyre and wheel.
Nock (Also Knock). The shoulder at the spoke tongue or tang on which the felloe abuts.
Outrigger. A removable beam attached to a cart on the nearside to allow a second horse to be harnessed. Frequently used by the Army up to and including the first World War.