WHEELWRIGHT TERMS

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GLOSSARY OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLE AND WHEELWRIGHT TERMS (F - J)

Farmer's draught. The harness is attached to the draught horse by swingle trees (q.v), leather straps, chains or crossbars at the vehicle end. So called because it was the traditional draught harness used by farmers. The term also applied to military vehicles.

Face spoke. The front spoke of a staggered spoke wheel. See also downward spoke.

Facing up the felloes. Planing a true face on the felloe (q.v.) face.The face side of the felloe is planed out of wind first to obtain a true face.

Falling top. A carriage hood, or head (q.v.) that may be raised or lowered according to the weather conditions.

Felloe (also Felly or Fellow) (pronounced “felly”). The curved, outside parts of a wheel rim into which the spokes are set. Each felloe supports two spokes.

Felloe block. A length of timber for cutting into one or more felloes (q.v.)

Felloe bound. The situation where the joints between the felloes (q.v.) have been drawn up tight before the joints at either end of the spokes have been set. The spokes, therefore, are too loose in their joints and the wheel will work loose.

Felloe dressing. See Dressed/Dressing

Felloe horse. A work frame on which felloes were cut and finished.

Felloe saw. See Frame saw.

Fifth Wheel. An ironclad wheel, or portion of a wheel, placed horizontally over the forward axle of a carriage to provide a bearing giving support and stability as the front axle turns.

Foot. The bottom tenon of a spoke which fits into the hub mortice

Footboard. The angled board to support the feet of the driver, at the front of the vehicle and for rear passengers the tailboard (q.v.) of two and four-wheeled gigs and dog carts.

Fore-gather. A technical term used to describe the forward angle given to the arms of the axle so that the wheels running in them have less chance of runing off. Usually preceded by "set" (q/v/)

Forehead. The upper front part of a wagon or cart body.

Futchell (Fourchill or Futchel). The u-shaped fitting on the fore-carriage to which the shafts, splinter bar, at the front, or sway bar at the rear are fitted.

Frame saw (Donkey saw or Felloe saw). The tool used to saw out curved work. The blade is held under tension narrow and moveable.

Gavel. See Housing.

Gig. Possibly derived from "whirligig" to describe a wide range of two wheeled vehicles, drawn by a single horse, which carried only two people.

Globe (or "Jew's harp" ) scroll iron.

Ground. See Housing.

Gurry Butt. By all accounts it is a rare and unusual three wheeled vehicle, and little is known to what its purpose was. Whilst it is tentatively believed that it was used for dredging pools and bringing in ice during the winter for storage in the ice house; the design, construction and limited maneuverability of the vehicle leaves this open to debate!

Hains. See Hame(s).

Hame(s) (Jambles,Seals, Siles or Hains). A pair of projecting "horns" on a horse collar through which the reins pass.

Hame knobs. Finials, usually of brass fitted to the top of the hame for decoration pruposes.

Hammercloth. An ornate cloth covering the coachman’s box. It normally displayed the coat of arms of the owner. Probably a corruption of "hamper-cloth".

Hansom (Joseph, Aloysius). Originally an architect and designer of the Birmingham Town Hall, who, following bancruptcy, turned his attention to the design of the original Hansom Cab. The later and universally accepted model was that designed by John Chapman, a one time clockmaker and manufacturer of lace-making machinery.The old cab bodies were labelled with "Hansom's Patent", for which reason the Chapman designed cabs remained known as Hansom Cabs.

Head. The top or hood of an open carriage.

Hermaphrodite. A vehicle between a cart and a wagon having a removable fore-carriage. It was favoured by farmers, particularly in East Anglia, since it was both versatile in use and inexpensive to purchase.

Hood. See Head.

Hooligan bar. A bar or rear spring armed with spikes to prevent children and others from climbing on the vehicle when in motion.

Hoop tyre. See Tyre.

Horse-block. A block or stage by which to mount or dismount from a horse.

Hounds. Side pieces of a farm wagon carriage or carriage to strengthen the vehicle body.

Housing (also gavel; ground; land). The resesses or large coves turned onto the nave (q.v), where the breast and hind bonds are shrunk on.

Hub (Also Boss, Naff, Nave or Stock). The metal or wood central part of a wheel into which the spokes are set. At the centre is set the axlebox on which the wheel runs. The term Hub is used when made of metal.

Hub cage. An iron band in which mortice holes were cut to accept the spoke mortice. It was set round the wooden wheelstock to provide additional strength.

Hub band. See Collet.

Imperials. Large flat trunks (q.v.) fitted to the roof of a coach.

Jamble(s). See hame(s)

Jarvis. A heavy tool with curved blade used for all kinds of rounding work particularly agricultural spokes.

Jarvey (Jarvi). A slang term for a Hackney Carriage driver, particularly of Hansom Cabs.

Joint. A term used to describe the gap between the felloes of a wheel, which are provided to enable the tyre to compress the components of the wheel tightly together.

Joss block. A horse block (q.v.)

Jump seat. A moveable seat, at the rear of the vehicle, on which the groom or footman sat.

Jyking. The creaking noise made Clog wheels (q.v.) used in the Yorkshire Dales.